Canada Council for the Arts has selected internationally renowned architect Douglas Cardinal and a team of Indigenous architects to represent Canada at the 2018 Venice Architecture Biennale. Mr. Cardinal, the driving force behind this historical initiative, is best known for his designs of the Canadian Museum of History and the Smithsonian National Museum of the American Indian in Washington D.C.
This exhibition will showcase 18 Indigenous architects from Turtle Island (Canada and the USA) to represent the two nations at the Venice Biennale of Architecture, the most prestigious architectural exhibit in the world. Together with Cardinal they will showcase their innovative design talent through an immersive and breathtaking installation.
UNCEDED: Voices of the Land is a celebration of Indigenous architecture that speaks to and from landscapes of resilience, overcoming unforgiving limitations and serving as a register of hope and pride for Indigenous designers across Turtle Island.
Unceded will be an experience bringing together the past, present and future of Indigenous experience as seen through the eyes and minds of Indigenous architects on Turtle Island. We envisage the Turtle Island Pavilion to be used as surfaces for telling the story through four thematic metaphors – indigeneity, resilience, sovereignty, and colonization.
These are specialized as “territories” as nodes through which narratives are presented through design. For example, the “Territory of Resilience” is the hope of the future expressed in the ideas based on indigenous teachings. It is intended to rely on the ideas indigenous architects express in their work and in this project, such as showcasing work informed by the indigenous spirituality, respect for people, and that communities and all life-givers as being one in the “dance of life.”
UNCEDED: Voices of the Land will show the world that Indigenous cultures inscribed within the laws, customs, and traditions of our peoples, have a great contribution to make to the world, as seen through the work of the Indigenous architects.
Unceded: Voices of the Land / Canada at the 2018 Venice Architecture Biennale
Type: Sports Complex
Client: Black Sheep Developments Inc.
Location: Orléans, Ottawa
Area: Approx. 65,000 sq.ft
Cost: +20 M
To Be Completed: 2019
When architecture is created with respect for the people and the environment, it can then raise the spirits of all who are involved and all or enter its spaces. The space is designed to ease the busy family schedule and focus on the health of each family member. The aim for this project is to create a warm welcoming space where people are not only excited to enter, but feel like they can perform at their best.
The intent behind the forms of Fortitude is to reach to the sky and be a celebration of life, vitality and strength, while taking form inspiration from the curves of the human body. The building features in the center a crest or tower. It is a celebratory sweep up, soaring up to the sky like a gymnast, dancer or athlete and standing proudly. Surrounding the crest is a series of multi-tier roofs that step down to the street, and wrap around at the corners inviting guests to enter.
Fortitude Building - Conceptual Model - Black Sheep Developments Inc.
Kettle & Stony Point FN Land Use Study
The Anishnaabeg of Kettle and Stony Point First Nation are located on the South Eastern Shore of Lake Huron, one of the five Great Lakes. The Great Lakes are the largest system of fresh surface water on the Earth. The Great lakes contain 18% of the world’s fresh surface water, an ecosystem that supports over 3500 species of plants and animals, and fishing and shipping industry that injects more than $7 billion annually into Canada’s economy.
The First Nation are also in close proximity to a number of sizable towns and large cities, including Toronto, the most populated city in all of Canada. Due to the natural environment of Kettle and Stony Point First Nation, with beautiful sandy beaches, forests, and access to the Great Lake, the First Nation is located in an area of great tourist attraction, frequented by both Canadian, US, and foreign visitors, especially during the summer months.
Between the First Nation and the neighbouring towns and nearby cities, almost all of the land surrounding Kettle and Stony Point is agricultural farmland. Thus, much of the pollutants found in the water and soils on Stony Point are pesticide pollutants draining off the neighbouring farms into Lake Huron and First Nation land and natural resources. The pesticides disrupt and prevent the First Nation from being able to safely harvest their natural resources. For this reason, the Kettle and Stony Point community may take this opportunity to establish their own regulations and strategies for treating the pesticide run-off before it affects their land’s resources. This measure would serve the community and demonstrate to the rest of the country a model for a holistic methodology of planning and development.
Our first step has been to do a proper inventory of all the resources of the land we are planning together. We have to then understand the soil and contours of the land and chart out the natural drainage patterns of the water that runs over the land. How we treat the water to work in harmony with the land is fundamental, because water brings life to the land, all the plants, fish, animals and birds. All are given life by the power of life, the water, which is the symbol of women.
Most of the planning by the dominant culture to date is deliberately designed to separate people from nature, and to separate people from each other. It separates the children from the parents, the men from the women, the elders from the community. One can be living next to their neighbour and really never have the opportunity of connecting with them.
Our present urban planning is designed to isolate each other, and it is definitely not planned for women and children. And it isolates the elders from the very fabric of our society. Our Anishinaabe values center our lives around our families. Our mothers and children are our priority. They need the help and support from the men and the elders to make sure that the children have the best resources available to them for their development.
The Anishnaabeg of Kettle and Stony Point First Nation now have an outstanding opportunity to use their land to develop a sustainable community that can provide economic opportunities, support traditional and contemporary First Nation culture, provide holistic educational programs, and take a leap toward socio-economic independence, becoming a leader in indigenous development.
Gordon Oakes Redbear Students Centre
Client: University of Saskatchewan
Location: Sasktoon, Saskatchewan
Area: 1600 sq. m.
The University of Saskatchewan has embraced the rapid increase in enrollment of Indigenous students as an opportunity to revitalize the future of their institution. The building is envisioned to provide necessary amenities and resources for Indigenous students, while simultaneously developing an understanding of Indigenous culture.
The building has three major programs: the Aboriginal Students Centre, the Indigenous Student Council and the Native Studies Department. These programs are focused on a central gathering space for formal ceremonies, lectures and social gatherings. The plan of the building is based on the simple notion that the circle is the symbolic base for healing, knowledge, and equality, as well as the foundation for all Indigenous ceremonies. The central gathering space is both the symbolic and systemic base for the building’s plan, as each department is anchored to it. This acts as a reminder to Indigenous people and an introduction to non-indigenous peoples to their worldviews.
In accordance with LEED Gold strategies, the building will not only benefit the Indigenous community on campus, but will also provide the University with state-of-the-art facilities for lectures, celebrations and presentations.
Kettle & Stony Point Cultural Centre
Adelante Healthcare Goodyear Project
Type: Healthcare Center
Client: Axis Developments Inc.
Partner Architects: Cawley Architects
Location: Mesa, Arizona
Area: Approx. 45,000 sq.ft
To Be Completed: 2018
The conceptual form of the building is an organic expression of the desert environment of Arizona. It not only represents the curves of the land, mountains and rocks, but also the living forms of the land such as the snakes, lizards and other desert creatures. The flow of the forms also represents the flow of water, water is an all female spirit.
The building sculpture ties the people who see the building and enter the building with the environment of the building and the land. The organic form allows people to connect with the beauty of nature, this is important because it is more healthy to be in harmony with yourself and in harmony with nature, nature is healing. People who connect with the beauty of nature and who live in harmony with the earth can heal mentally, physically and spiritually.
*Photography credits to the Adelante Healthcare
Museum of History
Client: Canadian Museum Construction Corporation, Canadian Museum of Civilization and Public Works Canada
Canadian Prime Minister Pierre Elliot Trudeau had a dream to raise Canada as a world leader. As part of this vision, he actuated a national competition to design world-class museums. Douglas Cardinal Architect was selected as the architect for the then-called “Museum of Man.”
Douglas Cardinal’s innovative solution to separate curatorial from exhibition spaces into two wings help to harmonize the museum with both its urban and natural settings. In the curatorial wing, offices around the perimeter allow natural light for staff while protecting the collections in the interior. In the exhibitions wing, large permanent exhibits interface with large areas for temporary exhibits. Two theatres for performing arts, and a Imax Omnimax complete the world-class national museum. The ambitious complex used the latest technologies of the time, including using water from the adjacent Ottawa River to heat and cool the museum, and fibre optic wiring throughout the museum to broadcast a virtual museum all over the world.
The Canadian Museum of Civilization is rich in symbolism, and eloquent curves. It is the most visited building in Canada, with more than one million visitors each year. It is consistently chosen as a stage to host world leaders visiting the Nation’s Capital on official business.
National Museum of the American Indian
Client: Smithsonian Institute
Location: Washington, DC
Cost: 199 million USD
Completed: September 2004
The National Museum of the American Indian was established in 1989 by an Act of Congress championed by Senator Inouye and Congressman Nighthorse Campbell. As part of the Smithsonian Institute in Washington DC, the Museum gives a strong presence to the indigenous peoples of the Americas. The Smithsonian recognized Douglas Cardinal’s experience in building the Canadian Museum of Civilization, and his intimate knowledge in aboriginal values and culture, and selected him as architect in partnership with Philadelphia firm GBQC.
The museum is a majestic curvilinear form that represents the nurturing female forms of Mother Earth, and complements the facing National Gal-lery by IM Pei An inviting, cavern-like threshold opens into the large Potomac - a gathering space for Native Americans to celebrate and share their rich culture with all visitors. In order to stimulate the imaginations of all decision makers, a Vision Session was held and involved the participation of official stakeholders, Elders of North and South American tribes, and many political and cultural icons and private funders such as the Rockefeller family. This sort of collaboration resulted in a building with sweeping curves, rich symbolism, and warm stone that truly welcomes and inspires Americans and the world about Indigenous cultures.
Cambrian College in Sudbury, Ontario serves many communities around Northern Ontario and Quebec. One quarter of the students are from the First Nations communities, and the service and dedication to these students are expanding the number of programs they require. The whole population that they are serving has been severely damaged by Canada’s residential school system, and they need spaces to honor and practice their traditions, for their elders and ceremonies, in order to help them heal from this tragedy that has been perpetrated on them.
The archives of these residential schools document terrible abuse and torture of the indigenous children, which has traumatized every family and brought long term consequences. Several of the schools in the area were found to have electric chairs in the basement. The college will house the archives of these residential schools so that they will be available for scholars in the region, nationally and internationally. It is imperative that this part of Canadian history be recorded and shared so that it never happens again.
Along with the archives there will be reading rooms, seminar rooms, counseling rooms, and ceremonial spaces to empower the indigenous culture, and the worldview of loving and caring for each other. The space will be designed in a way that honors the local environment and the natural cycles to help people to reconnect with the land, since they are of the land.
The building is placed in front of the main entrance so that everyone who enters the Cambrian College will be greeted by ceremonial spaces that reflect the indigenous culture where people resided for millennia. As an entry way it reaches out towards all who come towards the space.
The main entry will be from the East. In front of the entry will be a circular plaza, in the center of which will be an exterior ceremonial fire. On the periphery of the plaza will be the main road, bus parking, and access to the public parking areas. The entry will reach out to the summer and winter solstice lines of the rising sun. The main entrance doors will be on the line of the equinox.
This orientation will provide the main circular gathering space for celebration and ceremony, the opportunity for the traditional sunrise ceremonies, emphasizing the special ceremonies for the solstice and equinox celebrations.
The central space will be the main gathering space for college events as well as the special events of the first nations communities in the region in which the first nations is served. It will be a place of celebrating the survival of these indigenous cultures, where people can gather to exchange ideas, support, and use the space as a sacred spot for powwows, regional, national, and international events.
In the center will be a place for a fire and smudging, where ceremonies around the center will be open to the four directions, to the earth and to the sky. Everyone coming through the main entry of the college will flow through this main ceremonial space.
There will be appropriate kitchens to welcome people with food with adjoining cafeteria and dining facilities, as well as providing for large events such as banquets.
The detailed programming of this first floor is still being studied. The public spaces will also include a garden, exposed to the southern sun. This area will also include a glass elevator and stairs for all four levels.
The second level will have a circular corridor around the ceremonial space, connecting to the glass elevator and stairs, serving the Gathering, Learning, and Administration spaces. The details programs of each area are still being defined.
The third level is open to the West, the equinox, and the setting sun. That will be conference rooms, seminar rooms and ceremonial spaces honoring the setting sun, as well as an extension of the existing library space for archival material.
The fourth level is facing south, observing the cycles of the moon. Ceremonies to the sun and the moon, and the heavens will be the primary use of this space.
The sculptural form of the building is the symbol of the eagle, which represents the east, the rising sun, which represents a new day, a new dawn, a new opportunity to rise above the past and soar above the profane world into the spiritual realm, where we can all create a better world for our people and for all the people that share our land with us.
Cambrian College Design
Me No-ya Win Health Centre
Client: Sioux Lookout First Nation Health Authority
Location: Sioux lookout, Ontario
Area: 145, 000 sq feet
Cost: 90 million
Meno Ya Win Health Centre’s CEO Roger Wallmr and his Board of Directors had a vision to combine traditional first nations healing practices with the most up to date modern medical facilities. Thus they commissioned architects Douglas Cardinal and Murphy Hilger to build a hospital that would deliver a new holistic healthcare concept in Canada.
The hospital serves over 30,00 patients every year, and provides services for 28 aboriginal communities in an area as large as Germany, in Northern Ontario. The medical complex is designed in the have of a medicine wheel so that patients arriving by air can already see symbols of healing. On the ground level, the hospital resembles more a northern lodge retreat rather than an institution as the healthcare village relates closely to the earth. Doctors, elders, and traditional healers such as Josiah Fidler contributed in the design and technical requirements of the modern state of the art hospital. Already a leader in contemporary healing, Meno-Ya-Win Health Centre opened with great pride on October 15th 2010 by representatives of the signatories to the Four Party Agreement from the Federal and Provincial Governments as well as the City of Sioux-Lookout and the First Nations.
The partnership of all involved celebrates the healing of a community.
Long Point First Nation
Client: Long Point First Nation and INAC
Location: Winneway, Quebec
Area: 2390 sq. m.
Cost: 6.1 million
The Long Point First Nation settlement in Winneway is a semi-isolated community on the beautiful shores of Lake Simard and the Winneway River in the region of Temiscaming in Western Quebec. At the base of this community’s beliefs is the notion of respect. Everything has its purpose and deserves respect just as much as anything else. Another strong element of their belief system is the circle. This is reflected in their hunting habits: When families are moving to their winter territories, they use a different section of land each year, in rotation. This ensures the forest has time to regenerate it’s resources. The community’s philosophy has roots in total balance and harmony with nature.
The community began their journey to build a new school made largely with natural and/or native materials and local labour; created to be entirely resistant to mould, and incorporating their Indigenous culture, language and philosophy of balance and harmony. Items such as geothermal energy are noted as one of many items that should be evaluated for a new construction project. The leadership deemed this to be harmonious with nature and would significantly reduce operating costs moving into the future.
The overall plan is reminiscent of a beehive, which falls in line with the elders’ vision of the school. The name of the school in the Algonquin language is translated into “the beehive” where young students are nurtured and fed vital nutrients in order to grow and develop into adults.
First Nations Memorial
Client: Friends of Laura Secord
Location: DeCew House Heritage Park, Thorold, Ontario
Area: 17 sq. m.
In 1813, Laura Secord met members of the Mohawk Nation at this location (DeCew House) after a nearly 32 km long walk from the American side of the border, to warn Canada of an invasion. The Mohawks welcomed her and protected her as they went and met the British leaders to warn them of an American invasion.
Today, this memorial marks the end of the Laura Secord Legacy Trail. Visitors to the trail and the monument will be able to use their mobile phones to access the interpretours digital interpretive platform, providing an interactive user experience.
The proposed design is a circular shaped stone monument. The circle is a powerful symbol of welcoming, inclusion and protection. The protective forms around the circle are abstract symbols of Mohawk long houses that open to the East and West, with a hearth and fire in the center. The fire is a sphere, like the sun. The spherical surface is translucent and the shapes represent hot coals in the fire. The sphere will glow with programmable LED lights so that the light emits rays in the six directions. The light is a dynamic sculpture. People will come within the circle and relate and connect with the space.
The monument also provides seating within.There are two symbolic stone elements embedded on the walls of the monument. On the South wall, there will be the Hiawatha Wampum Belt which expresses the Great Law of Peace. On the North wall the William Claus Wampum Belt symbolizes the agreement between the Mohawk and the British.
More information regarding the First Nations Memorial can be found at The Friends of Laura Secord website:
Following the success of the Ouje-Bougoumou Village, the community and larger Cree nations of northern Quebec envisioned a centre of identity. The Aanischaaukamikw Cree Cultural Institute was proposed, to be built close to the village core of Ouje-Bougoumou on a sloping site overlooking the cultural and ceremonial grounds at the center of the village.
The building's unique design is composed of a dramatic sloping roof starting close to the earth. This not only creates a human character and scale to the building, but also articulates a response to the natural environment that the Cree people so desired. The sloping roof intersects with another roof emulating the traditional “shaptwam” building form. This form, with its high sloped ceilings and an array clerestories, allows main public spaces to blend with administrative, support, and service spaces in a very organic and efficient manner.
Architecturally, the Cree Cultural Institute integrates the principles set forth in the original village master plan created by Douglas Cardinal and the Cree community. This plan expresses the Indigenous character of the inhabitants while establishing a state of the art facility to house, express and cultivate Cree culture for all of the James Bay Cree people and visitors of non-Indigenous descent.
First Nations University
Client: First Nations University of Canada
Location: Regina, Saskatchewan
Area: 13,000 sq. m.
Cost: 27 million
Completed: Spring 2003
Saskatchewan Indian Federated College (SIFC) was established in 1976 through a federated partnership with the University of Regina. In 1994, seeking a strong identity and more independence from the University of Regina, Eber Hampton, then president of SIFC and the chiefs of Saskatchewan, called in Douglas Cardinal Architect to help develop a strong vision for the future First Nations University.
Douglas Cardinal led the Vision Session to help develop an overall master plan for the university that included developing programming, phasing for future design and construction, as well as creating a conceptual design for the overall university. The college’s unique program and design incorporated the wisdom of the Elders to lead the education as part of the Faculty.
On June 21st, National Aboriginal Day, of 2003, the First Nation’s University was officially opened with great fanfare by his Royal HIghness Prince Edward, the Earl of Wessex. Today, the First Nation’s University, stands as an organic entity that represents far more than a facility for their respective programs. The strong symbols conceived and designed in the building give specifically a voice and recognizable symbol to the First Nations University, as well as all Indigenous peoples of Saskatchewan and those who enroll to be thus educated.
Alberta Government Services Building
Client: Government of Alberta
Location: Ponoka, Alberta
Area: 82,150 sq.ft.
Cost: 12 million
When the government of Alberta with Premier Peter Louheed decided in a politics of decentralizing government services, a major building was sought at Ponoka. Public Works of Alberta and the Alberta Opportunity Company contacted Douglas Cardinal to design an innovative building that would inspire and became iconic as the vision for Alberta business opportunities.
Mr. Cardinal created a curvilinear design to dispel the rigidity associated with Government. The vision was to provide a building that would accommodate both Government and community use space. The flowing and open public spaces were to give an atmosphere of better promoting client services, with heart and vitality. The four storey building includes an enclosed atrium with year-round landscaping that help bridge the gap between the harsh Alberta and the need for green spaces.
The building enclosed Alberta Opportunity Company, and a Court House with Attorney General Chambers and Treasury branch. The Alberta Government Services Building in Ponoka had a grand opening by Premier Peter Louheed himself in 1976 and since it has became an architectural landmark for the community of Ponoka and the surrounding areas. The building is so efficient and beautiful that it received the Achievement Award for Excellence from the Province of Alberta.
Precam Elementary School
Douglas Cardinal Architect
Fairview Elementary School
Location: Red Deer, Alberta
Fairview Elementary School was designed with a novel concept to provide for the needs of 191 children from grades one through six. Classrooms were grouped on two and three sides of a central courtyard, with administrative offices on the fourth side. The exterior walls of the classrooms are free of windows, in order to free up the maximum possible wall surface for chalk boards and pin-up space, and to minimize heat loss and protect against prairie winter drafts. However, the rooms are not without an abundance of natural light; all classrooms have windows facing into the central courtyard, as well as large clerestory windows which splash sunlight into the center of each room.
Despite its innovative and well-liked designed, the school was built for a competitive price - a direct result of the careful thought given to its simple detailing.
Location: Stony Plain, Alberta
Area: 10,000 sq. ft.
In the natural landscape of Stony Plain, Alberta, the Cardinal Studio and Residence uses simple construction methods and forms to create a sculptural dialogue with the land. Retaining walls act as natural elements in the landscape, as they give shape to the dwelling. The symbolic freestanding elements in the vicinity of the Cardinal children and elders symbolize the learning that is shared between them in a natural setting.
Grand Prairie Regional College
Client: Grande Prairie Regional College
Location: Grande Prairie, Alberta
Area: 12, 500 sq m
Cost: 6 million
Dr Henry Anderson and the Grand Prairie College Board shared a vision for a post-secondary education in which a true community college could instruct, train, and educated young people to achieve fulfilling lives. They envisioned a modern, inspiring, and nurturing building and hired Douglas Cardinal to prepare a master plan of the campus He carried the plan out to completion until 1974. The College was designed to provide classes for courses in Arts, Sciences, Education, and Commerce. Today offers university transfers, diploma and certificate programs, apprenticeship and pre-employment training, as well as adult high school completion. A library and a BOO-person theatre are also part of the complex and were opened to the larger community of Grand Prairie.
The city of Grand Prairie has grown immensely since 1974, including additions to the College campus itself. Still, the inherent character and vision of the college remains unchanged. In February 2004 the much-loved college theatre was renamed in honour of the architect, “Douglas J Cardinal Performing Arts Centre.”
Location: Sioux Valley, Manitoba
Douglas Cardinal Architect Inc. provided design services for this elementary school on the SIoux Valley Reserve in South Western Manitoba. To ensure that the design of their school would evolve around native values, the elders of the Band approached Mr. Cardinal to assist a local architect in the design stage of the project.
In consultation with the elders and other Band leaders, the architect developed a program of space requirements that reflected and fulfilled the needs of the community.
Asinabka Cultural Centre
Client: St. Mary’s Parish
Location: Red Deer, Alberta
Area: 13,150 sq. ft.
Cost: $300 000
With the Vatican Concilium II in 1963, the Catholic Church went through a radical modernization. In these exciting times, Father Merx had a vision of a church that could carry the very abstraction of the Spirit of the Church, past present and future. He hired Architect Douglas Cardinal and together while listening to Bach’s organ music they designed a church around the new liturgy.
The church thus stands as a monument to spirituality. Based on the ideas of the first Christian gatherings before the cruciform basilica plan was created, Father Merx environed a design centered in the Eucharist, the symbol of Christ’s Living. An oculus to the altar and the tabernacle directs natural light as a symbol of divine light. The amorphous ceiling, a technical feat of the times, creates the acoustics to carry the Word of Christ without microphones. Even the confessional’s unique design using tempered glass to allow in the light of the altar inspires deep spiritual reconciliation.
Archbishop Jordan consecrated the church as a Cathedral in 1968. The aesthetical and technical innovations of this church awarded immediate national and international recognition to Douglas Cardinal’s career. St. Mary’s church is a masterpiece that conveys deep reconciliation and introspection as allows close gathering of a community.
Iskotew Healing Lodge
Client: Fire Within Healing
Location: Ottawa, Ontario
Area: 12, 300 sq feet
Cost: 1-6 million
An architectural jewel shines in the basement of the Brooke Claxton Building. The name of the lodge is Iskotew, which is the Cree translation for “fire within”- This healing and wellness lodge provides an opportunity for Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal employees of Health Canada, and other government departments, to gain a greater appreciation and understanding of traditional Aboriginal cultures and practices. All employees are welcome to make appointments with visiting Elders for individual sessions and spiritual guidance. The lodge also hosts various workshops. The interior of the lodge is a contemporary conceptualization of the traditional longhouse and healing environment The design uses natural materials such as cedar, oak, cork raw deer hide and copper The peaceful sounds of the water fountains give a sense of spirit, and the use of warm colours and elements found in nature give the lodge a feeling of harmony and serenity.
Edmonton Space Science Centre
Client: Municipality of Edmonton
Location: Edmonton, Alberta
Cost: 7-8 million
The Edmonton Space Sciences Foundation was created by a young group of visionaries as a private non-profit organization to promote a new planetarium and science centre for Edmonton- Led by John Hault, they contacted Douglas Cardinal to design them a thrilling and uplifting new science centre to bring space to life.
The City of Edmonton selected the Edmonton Space Sciences Centre as the City’s Flagship project to commemorate the Province of Alberta’s 75th Anniversary. The project captured the imaginations of Provincial and Federal funders, as well as many private donors who purchased stars as part of their fundraising efforts. State of the art technologies were used for the building, including the best optics of the world from East Germany in the planetarium.
After its opening in 1984, the Edmonton Space Sciences Centre immediately became one of Northern Alberta’s premiere attractions. It offers visitors from around the world an incredible space and science centre experience. In 1992 a major addition was also commissioned to add much needed square footage on two floors. On July 1st 2009, the Centre underwent another expansion and was renamed the Telus World of Science: Edmonton as it celebrated 25 years of discovery.
Kanai Middle School
Location: Sioux Valley, Manitoba
Area: 41 000 sq. ft
Cost: 5-5 million
The Kanai Middle School is located on the Blood Reserve, ten kilometres west of Lethbridge, Alberta. It serves 420 students from grades five to eight. Each grade level is centers in a grouping or pod in order to limit travel within the school and to encourage teachers to work together as a team within the pod. Each pod also houses separate subjects, such as math, literature, social studies, and science, as well as specialty courses in the Blackfoot language, art, home economics, industrial art, and computer sciences. The Kauai Middle School is designed with efficiency in mind, as the limited travel between classes increases time available for learning and activities.
Jehovah's Witnesses' Kingdom Hall
Client: Jehovah's Witnesses
Location: Gatineau, QC
Circle Of Life Thunderbird Place
Client Circle of Life Thunderbird House
Location: Winnipeg, Manitoba
Completed: Opened March 2001
“The birth and delivery of the concept of the Circle of Life Thunderbird House was born from a meeting of an Elders Council with Architect Douglas Cardinal in 1998 at the Aboriginal Centre. At this meeting, Mr. Cardinal conferred with the Council as to what this building might look like and after a full day of discussions and consultation, Mr. Cardinal submitted his concept of their discussions and consultation two weeks later with a model of what this building might look like. This was presented to the community in the Rotunda of the Aboriginal Centre by Mr. Cardinal The concept and model were enthusiastically accepted by those gathered, of which there were no fewer than 300 people present.”
Grand Traverse Civic Centre
Client: The Grand Traverse Band of the Ottawa and Chippewa Indians
Location: Grand Traverse County, Michigan
Area: 25,000 square feet
Completed: March 2001
The Grand Traverse Band of the Ottawa and Chippewa Indians wanted a Civic Centre for their community of Grand Traverse, Michigan. The vision was to create a center that would reflect the Grand Traverse people, their culture and heritage as it served particularly the elders and the youth.
The concept for the Civic Centre soon became a circular design to allow for a central gathering space. Being designed as a multi-purpose budding to facilitate the staging of many types of events and gatherings, symbols such as the shape of the turtle and pinpoints to the four directions allow specific cultural activities. Yet the primary features for the design became a gymnasium, a basketball court, running track, and various other sport and public meeting rooms.
On the outside, the structure symbolizes a turtle with its thirteen plates to honour the lunar phases and the power of women. The most efficient material for the building being a geodesic structure, it was designed so that components were fabricated and sent to the community. The community itself was able to put the structure together with a minimum of training. The budding completed in 2001 was credited with an award for Best Budding of its size in Michigan and United States of America.
Location: Cold Lake Alberta
Area; 3000 sq. ft.
Cost: $72 000
York Region Administrative Centre
Client: Municipality of York
Location: York Region, Ontario
Area: 245 000 sq.ft
Cost: 60 million
Oneida Hotel and Casino
Client. Oneida First Nation
Location: Verona, New York
Cost. 80 million USD
The Oneida Nation of upstate New York decided to get into the Casino business booming the Indian Nations of the United States. Starting with a Bingo Hall they were ready to expand to a full scale casino and hotel resort when CEO Ray Halbritter and his associates contacted Douglas Cardinal in 1995.
A two story, 103,000 sq.ft. addition was designed to include a large hall on the ground floor and administrative facilities on the second level. A fabulous hotel with 227 guest rooms, indoor pool, spa and health club facilities allowed also openings to an exterior patio during the summer. The hotel held retail spaces including ice-cream parlour, 24 hour service restaurant, video arcade, and shops. A Las Vegas type dinner/ entertainment theatre to sit 220 patrons completed the ambitions project where musical legends frequent such as Kenny Rogers, Billy Idol, and The Beach Boys
Turning Stone is today a sought after destination of a 1,200 acre complex, award winning Resort-Casino featuring luxurious accommodations including the original Hotel and The Villages RV Park designed by Douglas Cardinal. Recognitions such as The AAA Four-Diamond award and Condé Nast Johansens "Most Excellent Golf Resort" for the USA and Canada for 2010, attest to the tremendous success presently in Turning Stone.
Ouje' Bougoumou Village
Client: Ouje-Bougoumou Crees
Location: Ouje-Bougoumou Quebec
Area: 570 Acres
“When we began to seriously plan our new village, we started with a vision.
The essential thrust of that vision was to recreate the well-being of our traditional way of life to the fullest extent in the context of modern facilities and contemporary institutions.
In our traditional way of life there were no formal distinctions between work and play, between teaching and learning, between the richness of family ties and the establishment of specific roles for people, nor for that matter between healing and daily life. Daily life itself was infused with elements of learning, healing, play and a deeply rich network of social relationships.
Our new village would have to be a source of learning, a source of spiritual renewal, a source of physical and economic sustenance, and a source for the healing of many wounds, both past and present. And all this would be embedded in the context of our traditional Cree ways of relating to one another.
Throughout our planning and construction the community members have participated at every level of decision making and direction-setting, from the expression of hopes, dreams and visions, to decisions on more technical matters involving the direction of basic construction issues.
Successful aboriginal development requires that we always keep in mind that the Creator gave us hearts to have vision, minds to devise solutions to problems and hands to build our communities. It was on the basis of this set of beliefs that we undertook a unique approach to the village architecture, the design of our innovative housing program, the installation of an appropriate alternative energy system and devised our current economic development plans.”
Client: Ross River Dena Council
Location: Ross River, Yukon Territory
Area: Community Plans, 10,000 sq.ft Cultural Centre, and 50 Detached Homes
Cost: 18 Million
The Ross River Dena Koue and Sustainable Community Project began as a small conceptual design for a new community centre on a sacred site in this remote Yukon town. The project grew to include a community plan for a 50 home subdivision adjacent to the existing town of Ross River. The project is situated at the confluence of the Ross 8: Pelley Rivers, where the community first stood before being forcibly relocated in the 1960’s. The design of this new community is based in the age-old wisdom of the Kaska Dena people, and their desire to have a close and harmonious relationship with the land they inhabit With the participation of the community as a whole, Douglas Cardinal designed a community that is an expression of the rich culture 8.: history of the Ross River Dena. At the request of the council, all areas of the community are connected via a common natural green space, with vehicular traffic being relegated to the periphery of the community. The design calls for the use of only the most contemporary community infrastructure technology available, including self-contained waste water treatment tanks, micro-hydro, solar and wind power generating facilities. In addition, all construction in this new community will be modular, and made from local materials by local trades This type of building assembly allows for ease of construction and flexibility over time according to the community.
Client. Kamloops Indian Band
Area: 40,000 Acres
Completed: December 2005
The Kamloops Indian Band (KIB) approached our firm to provide a comprehensive Land Use Plan for their reserve across the river from the City of Kamloops. There are approximately 40,000 acres of prime real estate land in a very beautiful valley that has been nurtured and preserved by the Shuswap people.
Many special considerations guided the planning of the reserve. The planning process began by identifying the arms of existing cultural, historical and spiritual significance, the natural watershed and the grounds Indigenous to animals and plant life. Our firm and the Band recognize the unique and priceless gifts that the reserve has to offer, and that making best use and respecting these resources is of utmost importance- From these considerations a framework for a whole series of detailed tasks was born. The tasks in the: working up the details of proposals for specific sites for Certificate of Possession landholders, implementing projects such as a cultural and educational blocks, commercial developments, phoning for current and future infrastructure needs, and development of parks and recreational areas. The development of these details will take the involvement and agreement of a range of individuals and interest groups The Land Use Plan provides guidance for these tasks within a framework that sets out the land uses and opportunities
Client: Yellowquill First Nation
Location: Saskatoon, SK
Area: 570 Acres
Cathedral Bluffs Country Estates has a ravine running through the centre of the development and a 70 foot high river bank along the eastern side of the project. This overwhelming natural setting is projected to become the home of 400 city-size lots. Each lot at Cathedral Bluffs Country Estates is projected to be in an inverted cul-de-sac - access to each property is on the outside of the cul-de-sac. This unique design allows all homes to front onto a semi-private park Many lots will have the breathtaking view of the river through their back windows and a magnificent view of a park through their front windows. This artistic concept will attract those who enjoy the natural setting of the river, ravine and park areas provided by Cathedral Bluffs Country Estates.
The focal point of the development is a natural ravine which runs southwest to northeast through the centre of the Cathedral Bluffs Country Estates In-between the river and the ravine lay approximately 300 lots with 75 lots projected to be river front. To the west of the ravine, approximately 100 lots are projected Many of these lots will have views of the ravine. The ravine is projected to be an area in which families can spend time enjoying nature and building relationships with each other Families will be able to enjoy walking trails, hiking trails and bike paths that traverse in this natural setting.
Ile a la Crosse Elementary School
Kettle & Stony Point Clubhouse
Caster Provincial Building
Client Kehewin Cree Nation
This master plan is an example of Douglas Cardinal’s aboriginal use of the circle as a generator for planning. Note that these drawings are partly physical plans and partly diagrams, so that the radiating circles do not necessarily indicate circular buildings.
Ojigkwanong Students Centre
Arriyadh Science Complex
Bonneville Rehabilitation Centre
June 25, 1974
Why a new educational system for the Indians of Alberta? To understand the need for one, you must give a little thought to the state of the Indian people today. To the casual observer they do not seem to be able to, or often, even willing to, benefit from the sophisticated educational - and
abundant career - opportunities offered by the technological culture of Canada today. They would seem, to judge superficially from their performance in Canadian society, to be destined for a life of educational, economic and social stagnation quite apart from the trend of mainstream society. And to the casual observer most of them are the way they are simply because they are incapable of being and unwilling to be, anything else, an "inferior” race of people.
Very few judgements could miss the point of it more. The Indian adult was not always at the bottom of the social ladder, the Indian child is intellectually of no lesser capacity than his white counterpart, Indian communities were not always stagnant pools in the rich Canadian landscape. The truth is that the Indian people are experiencing a turmoil that few other Canadians will ever have to know, let alone grapple with. They are caught in the whirlpool of a deep conflict, a conflict of radically different cultures. on the one hand, they are the products of a rich and ancient culture which has demonstrated, by the persistent recovery of the Indian people through repeated waves of natural and cultural shock, that it cherished certain attitudes that enabled the Indians
to flourish longer than any other known "natural people". On the other hand, they find the patterns of their lives today determined largely and forcibly by members of a modern society that is committed largely to a way of life which, even to its.own realization, is now engendering serious threats to the survival of that society.
Faced with the obvious necessity to live in harmony with the majority culture around him, and in many cases reluctant to abandon values that have been an integral part of the lives of his people, each Indian seeks through his own route some "balance" of lifestyle that must grow from a blending of these two cultures. Some, unable or unwilling to abandon ingrained values or grapple with the conflict, withdraw to the setting that bears least evidence of the presence of the "alien" culture - the reserves, which more often than not, fail to offer him the things and ways of life that he needs for leading a meaningful life. Others forsake their own traditional ways for a place of apparent, but dubious, dignity in a Western society that has not yet fully learned to accept the Indian on any but its own terms. Yet others, finding neither spiritual nor material satisfaction in either way of life, and in the absence of those social attitudes that make possible a culturally balanced way of life, wander this way and that in the heart of the turmoil, always confused by the seeming hopelessness of the struggle of life, and thrashing out at every manifestation of this conflict.
The Indians have realized that a direction, a meaning, cannot be restored to their lives through a unilateral submission" to another culture; that any way of life for the Indian must necessarily be founded on the dignity of his race and a pride in his heritage; that harmonious life in Canadian society or a reserve against the backdrop of the majority-culture setting - can only be achieved
through a blending of selected good aspects of both cultures. And since the preparation of a person for life in the society in which he lives forms the basic and broad purpose of education, hope for Indians can be seen to be largely in the development of an educational process that will, through its nature and its example, prepare each Indian for a full life encompassing the positive elements of both cultures.
An earlier report relating to the Alberta Indian Education Centre developed a basic philosophy for
the Centre from these principles. In "Indian Education in Alberta - A Working Philosophy", that basic philosophy is refined and adapted to satisfy the more comprehensive educational needs of all Indians in the Province, to serve as the foundation upon which all facilities, including the Alberta Indian Education Centre, may be developed. The first parts of this document are devoted to making possible an understanding of the state of the Indians today, while the latter sections discuss the nature of a new educational system that must answer the needs of the Indian people of Alberta.